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A Guide to Playing in a Big Band Saxophone Section

This article is a guest post from Jeff Rzepiela, whose transcriptions of saxophone solos by the greats can be found at

Playing in a big band’s sax section can be a thrilling experience. When the section is in synch, it can be like the Blue Angels flying in perfect formation. On the other hand, when the section is not working together and it’s every man for himself, it can make for a very long evening.

In this article, I share some of my thoughts about playing in a sax section. In particular, I examine the section from the perspective of the lead alto chair. The majority of my playing in a section is as lead alto, so I have some thoughts about what makes the lead player’s job easier or harder. While I primarily play lead, I also play three of the other four chairs (I leave bari playing to the experts), so I can offer some thoughts from those perspectives as well.

Lead Alto

While the role of the lead alto probably requires a dedicated feature of its own, I’ll offer a few comments here.

As you’ll realize in the process of reading this article, there is a common theme of listening and blending with the lead player. That means as lead player, the responsibility is on your shoulders to provide a clear and consistent way of playing that the other members of the section can count on. Consistency is extremely important – phrasing, dynamics, intonation, note lengths, etc. need to be clear.

Another point is playing in a stylistically correct way depending upon the situation in which you find yourself. A recent interview with several lead alto players (e.g. Dick Oatts, Steve Wilson, etc.) for JazzEd magazine gave their perspectives on playing lead. One common idea many of the players mention was careful listening to recordings by the great lead players. I can suggest just a few of my favorites – Marshal Royal with the Basie band, Phil Woods with Quincy Jones and Oliver Nelson, Jerome Richardson, Jerry Dodgion, and Dick Oatts with different incarnations of the Thad Jones/Mel Lewis band.

Another common theme that emerged in the interview with the lead players was to look for as many opportunities to play in as many different bands as you can to learn a wide repertoire. As Dick Oatts said, “Experience is, by far, the most important learning tool.”

2nd Alto

I think this is definitely the “Goldilocks” chair in the section. You can’t play too hard or too soft; it has to be just right! The best 2nd players play right up to the lead player but don’t go past that. Trouble usually arises when the 2nd player either plays too much or too little.

In the first case, it makes the lead player’s job so much harder when the 2nd player keeps grabbing the steering wheel so to speak. If the second player is dominating, it is difficult for the lead player to set dynamics, phrasing, time-feel, etc. In this case, the section sounds disjointed as the other players are unsure which player to follow and can quickly devolve into 5 people playing on their own rather than together.

On the opposite extreme is when the 2nd player is non-committal – the notes may be correct, but the dynamics never escape a gray area between mp and mf, the articulation is mushy, and the rhythm just plods along without any sense of swing or drive. In this case, the sax section can sound hollow since the important 2nd voice is missing.

While I primarily play lead, on those occasions when I get called to play 2nd, I try to keep my ears wide open and continually adjust to the lead player. I try to match their intonation, phrasing, dynamics, etc.

I recently subbed in a band playing 2nd. The gig started and we played a couple of tunes which gave me an idea of the lead player’s style. The next tune came up and in the split second before the downbeat he tapped the second page and said to watch out for this section since it was an exposed part for the altos. When we got to that section, my radar was on high. I held back just a hair at the beginning to see where he was going to set the volume and then quickly came right up under his part. It was a nice piece of writing that covered a good part of the range of the horn (roughly low E to palm-key E), had a lot of dynamic markings, varied articulation, a scooped note, etc. All the while, I was making constant adjustments, matching the lead note for note. As we got the next chart up, the lead player turned to me and said “Geez!” That was followed by silence while I tried to read his poker-face to determine if he meant, “Geez, that was pretty good” or “Geez, remind me not to call you to sub ever again”. He then smiled and said “That sounded like one guy playing. We were in perfect synch!” I breathed a sigh of relief and knew the rest of the gig would be just fine – provided I kept my ears open like that all night.

1st Tenor

A common theme I will return to throughout this article is keeping your ears open and following the lead player. This point applies to the lead tenor as well. A wide-open set of ears will allow you to match the intonation, dynamics, and phrasing of the lead. On certain charts (e.g. Bill Holman’s “Yesterdays”), there are sections where the 1st tenor has the lead – this is a moment to shine and lead the section.

Depending on the arrangements and band, the 1st tenor can have the majority of the solos. While not intending to tell someone how to solo, I will mention one point. Part of section-playing (and big band playing in general) is adjusting your playing to match the situation in which you find yourself. When it comes to improvisation, if you are in a band playing modern arrangements and you have the solo on a Maria Schneider arrangement, cut loose! On the other hand, if you are playing a dance at the Elks Club, a 16 bar solo on an old Big Band-era favorite might not be the best time to show off the multiphonics tricks you have been practicing. I recall a dance gig where the 1st tenor player had a ballad feature and proceeded to tear into his solo with an Ascension-era Coltrane-like fervor. It’s the only time I’ve seen someone clear a dance floor! So, a word to the wise, there is a time and place for everything.

2nd Tenor

The 2nd tenor part can be a particularly challenging chair to play well. Depending on the arrangement, this part can be tricky to play musically. Dexter Gordon is quoted as saying how musical Tadd Dameron’s arrangements were and that even the 2nd tenor parts had beautiful melodic lines.

A lot of times, we’re not so lucky. Examining a score might show that all the notes of a 2nd tenor part are playing an important harmonic role, but when viewed as a single line, the line is not particularly melodic. A good arranger can tweak the voicings to improve the playability of all the parts, but sometimes no matter what combinations are tried, it is hard to make every part melodic all the time. Frequently the 2nd tenor part gets the short end of the stick.

I used to play in a rehearsal band where I specifically wanted to play the 2nd tenor part. I was committed to learning to play that chair well, not because I specifically wanted to be a full-time 2nd tenor player, but because I thought it would make me a better lead player. I worked to understand how that part fit into the overall context of the section, learned to balance my part between the lead alto and lead tenor, and tried to play as melodically as I could. Now when I play lead on a Thad Jones chart and hit a tricky soli section, I can’t complain about my part since I know what the 2nd tenor player is dealing with!


While I don’t play bari myself, I have been lucky to have played with some excellent bari players. How they approach their part can make the lead player’s life a lot easier.

In one scenario, if there is a soli voiced in a standard 4-way close, doubled lead configuration (a la Supersax), then bari player is doubling the lead part an octave lower. If this part is played well, the lead player can relax a little. The doubling at the octave adds weight to the line, so the lead player can focus more on phrasing, articulation, and swing.

On the other hand, if the lead and bari are not in synch, then playing the lead line can feel like walking in quicksand as the weight of the bari drags everyone down. In the case of a 5-way voicing, the bari has an independent line. Again when well-played, the 5th voice adds a richness and depth to the section.

Another possibility is that the baritone has an independent line that plays against the other horns in the section. Perhaps it can be a funky, Tower of Power-like ostinato in the bari part which the lead alto line plays against. If the bari part is laid down with a rhythmic confidence, the alto part practically plays itself. If not, it can feel like the whole section just stepped in wet concrete.


I hope this article has presented some ideas about playing in a saxophone section from the perspective of the lead player. Playing in a great section in which everyone’s ears are open can be thrilling. Keep the visual image of the Blue Angels in mind and keep the sound of the Ellington and Basie sax sections in your ears as you work together to collectively make the music come alive!

Category: Best of the Blog, Best Saxophone Tips and Techniques

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About the Author

Jeff Rzepiela is a multi-instrumentalist and arranger working in the Bay Area. His website ( features a large collection of transcriptions from the masters of the saxophone and flute. Additionally, there are several free lessons on the website based on ideas drawn from these transcriptions. Jeff is available for lessons either in person or via Skype. Contact him at

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Comments (5)

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  1. Jordan says:

    Good article, and your comments ring very true for me after several years of directing and playing lead alto primarily in rehearsal bands.

    One important point worth mentioning is that the bari part is frequently voiced in with the trombones. There is a kind of back-and-forth switch that goes on quite frequently. The bari player, and the rest of the section, have to be attentive to this.

    Another aspect I have always found challenging is balancing the section as a whole with soloists and the rest of the band. It can be easy for sax section backgrounds to overpower soloists, especially in old-style charts where the backgrounds are intricate and the solo is being played by, for example, a muted trumpet. The lead alto player has to be the “enforcer” for dynamics in this kind of situation.

    Similarly, in band solis or shout choruses, the entire sax section has to subjugate itself somewhat to the will of the lead trumpet player when it comes to phrasing, articulation, and special effects like shakes. In these passages, the whole section (especially the lead alto player) also needs to be aware of where they sit harmonically — e.g. does the lead alto double the first trumpet or the second trumpet? Is the bari playing a “trombone part”?

    I agree fully with you that in one sense, the second tenor part is the most challenging of the whole section. Blistering soli sections may be challenging for the lead alto, but the second tenor needs to come up with the same tempo and feel, and stay in the right dynamic position in the section — with a part that might not make any melodic sense. That can be a huge challenge.

  2. Larry W says:

    Overall pretty good. I minor picky thing though. Why are people calling the 1st tenor player the Lead tenor. Unless it is a Woody Herman type Four Brothers chart (3 tenors & a bari) or something lie the short sax soli in Bill Holmans’ Yesterdays (which I own and have played the solo part on) neither tenor is playing lead. That job falls to the 1st alto player 97% of the time.

    One other thought. This is what Artie Shaw said and how all his bands played as well as Kenton’s, Basie’s etc. Artie said the 2nd alto has to play louder than the 1st alto with the tenors playing even harder in harmonized sections. He said the lead altos note will be heard because it is higher. He said he doesn’t want to hear the section sound like it’s the lead player with 4 other guys accompanying him. He wants to hear a chord. Go back and listen to some of Artie’s stuff as well as the Kenton Band from the 40’s & 50’s. Same for Basie. There sections sound FAT and FULL not wimpy.

    Also if you listen to some of the background sax stuff behind tpt/trom sols yes the section is up a bit more in volume than maybe you are used to.

    I’ve heard the current Shaw band when DIck Johnson was leading it. The sax section was the warmest and fullest sounding section I’ve ever heard. And yes they also played with dynamics and it was still full sounding at mp-p.

    Anyway just a few comments although you may not agree.

    • BRESDIN says:

      You’re completely right !
      there is no sax section sound like the sound of de Artie SHAW band in 1938 – 1939.
      They are my boss for ever.
      Whis the addition of :
      Hilton JEFFERSON, lead sax in the CAB CALLOWAY ORCHESTRA and Benny Carter : these two for this fantastic american saxophone sound on alto saxophone.
      all my friendship from France.
      I play saxophones and clarinet until 45 years.
      When you can play in a good sax section whis this old sound : you can reach the seventh heaven.
      There is nothing above

    • BRESDIN says:

      You’re completely right !
      there is no sax section sound like the sound of de Artie SHAW band in 1938 – 1939.
      They are my boss for ever.
      Whis the addition of :
      Hilton JEFFERSON, lead sax in the CAB CALLOWAY ORCHESTRA and Benny Carter : these two for this fantastic american saxophone sound on alto saxophone.
      all my friendship from France.
      I play saxophones and clarinet until 45 years.
      When you can play in a good sax section whis this old sound : you can reach the seventh heaven.
      There is nothing above

  3. Tibbs says:

    The Second tenor player is the unsung hero of the big band

  4. Thanks for all the comments and thanks for taking the time to read my thoughts on sax section playing.

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